Obesity is excess weight as a result of excessive accumulation of body fat . Someone who has a body weight 20 % higher than the middle value range of normal weight is considered obese .
Obesity is classified into 3 groups :
• Obesity mild : 20-40 % overweight
• Obesity was : 41-100 % overweight
• Severe obesity : excess body weight > 100 % .
Severe obesity was found as much as 5 % of the people who are obese .
Women tend to hoard fat in the hips and buttocks , thus giving an idea like a pear . While men usually hoard fat around the stomach , thus giving an idea like apples . But it is not something that is absolute ; sometimes on some men looks like a pear and some women look like apples , especially after menopause .
Scientifically , obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are required by the body . The cause of the imbalance between calorie intake and burning is still unclear .
The occurrence of obesity involves several factors :
1 . Genetic factors .
Obesity tends to be lowered , so suspected to have a genetic cause . But family members share not only genes but also diet and lifestyle habits , which can promote obesity .
Often difficult to separate the lifestyle factors with genetic factors .
Recent research shows that the average genetic factors influence 33% of one’s weight .
2 . Environmental factors .
Gene is an important factor in many cases of obesity , but a person’s environment also plays a significant role . This environment includes behavioral / lifestyle patterns ( eg what to eat and how many times a person eats and how their activities ) .
A person certainly can not change the genetic pattern , but it can change your diet and activity.
3 . Psychological factors .
What’s in the person’s mind can affect eating habits.
Many people reacted to his emotions by eating .
One form of emotional distress is a negative self-perception . This disorder is a serious problem in many young women who suffer from obesity , and can cause excessive awareness about obesity and discomfort in social interaction .
4 . The health factor .
Some diseases can cause obesity , including :
- Cushing ‘s syndrome
- Prader – Willi Syndrome
- Several neurological disorders that can cause a lot of eating .
5 . Drugs .
Certain medications ( such as steroids and some anti -depressants ) can cause weight gain .
6 . Factor development .
The addition of the size or number of fat cells ( or both ) cause increasing amount of fat stored in the body .
Obese people , especially who became obese in childhood , can have fat cells sampak 5 times more than people of normal weight .
The number of fat cells can not be reduced , because the weight loss can only be done by reducing the amount of fat in each cell .
Lack of physical activity is probably one of the main causes of the increasing incidence of obesity in the midst of an affluent society .
People who do not actively require fewer calories . Someone who tends to consume foods rich in fat and physical activity are balanced, will be obese .
Obesity is not only pleasing to the eye but it is a dire health dilemma . Obesity is directly harmful to one’s health .
Obesity increases the risk of some chronic diseases such as :
- Type 2 diabetes ( arising in adulthood )
- High blood pressure ( hypertension )
- Heart attack ( myocardial infarction )
- Heart failure
- Cancer ( certain types of cancer , such as prostate cancer and colon cancer )
- Gall bladder stones and bladder stones
- Gout and gouty arthritis
- Sleep apnea ( failure to breath normally during sleep , causing reduced oxygen levels in the blood )
- Pickwickian syndrome ( obesity accompanied by facial redness , underventilasi and sleepy ) .
Around the world , the incidence of cancer is increasing faster than population growth . Although it has been known that obesity increases the incidence of cancer , but the quantity and cancer risk where the risk is increased still needs further evaluation . The American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund International has gathered its members to evaluate the risk of cancer . The data discussed is the data from 7000 published studies .
The results of the review conducted :
• Obesity significantly increases the risk of 6 Janis cancers: colon , kidney , pancreas , esophagus, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women .
• Weight gain or a few pounds of excess fat will increase the risk of cancer .
• Increased consumption of red meat increases the risk of cancer by 15 % .
• Increased consumption of processed meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer . Associated with these results , the researchers make recommendations for the prevention of cancer ( related to weight ) :
• Try to be in the normal weight range , ( as thin as possible ) .
• Consumption of foods of plant origin ( fruit , vegetables , rice , and peas ) .
• Avoid consumption of 18 ounces of red meat per week .
• Avoid processed meat consumption as much as possible .
• Avoid physical activity as much as possible .
• Fixed meet nutritional needs through diet .
• Consumption of non- calorie foods , such as sweetened beverages should be limited
• Restriction of alcohol consumption
• Patients who have successfully recovered from cancer should follow these recommendations . Added that obesity increases the risk of gallstone formation , and the presence of gallstones increases the risk of gallbladder cancer , which is estimated to occur from cholesterol supersaturation . Obesity affects the levels of circulating hormones such as insulin , insulin – like growth factors and estrogen , which will bring up the state of the spur carcinogenesis and reduce apoptosis . This stimulates the body’s inflammatory response that would lead to the onset and progression of some cancers .